Glossary of technical terms
Accuracy: a measure of the degree of agreement between a measured quantity value and a true quantity value
Active/non-active (status): this field applies to spring features only and identifies whether springs are currently active or inactive (inactive springs are only included for GAB region. (Inactive refers to a spring where no free water was visible at the ground surface, with the exception of some mounded mud springs within the Eulo district)
Aggregations (birds): see
Alluvial aquifer: a deposit of gravel sand, silt and/or clay particles laid down by physical processes in river channels or on floodplains that stores and transmits water through intergranular voids
Alluvium: soil, clay, silt or gravel deposited by flowing water as it slows in a river bed, delta, estuary or flood plain
Anthropogenic: environmental alterations or perturbations resulting from the presence or activities of humans
Aquifer: a geologic unit that can store and transmit water at rates fast enough to supply reasonable amounts to wells
Assessment: see Assessment page
Attribute: descriptive characteristics or features
Authochthonous: derived from within a system such as organic matter in a stream resulting from photosynthesis by aquatic algae and plants
Available soil water holding capacity: This is a measure of the capacity of soils to store water. Soil water is measured as a percentage of the soil dry weight (% by weight) but sometimes as the volume of water as a percentage of the soil volume (% by volume) or as the depth of water per metre depth of soil (m/m)
Base flow: the groundwater contribution to a stream
Basin: The entire geographical area drained by a river and its tributaries or an area characterised by all run-off being conveyed to the same outlet. This area is often referred to as a catchment area, catchment basin, drainage area, river basin or watershed.
Beneficiaries: see Wetland values and services page
Bioregion: refers to a biogeographic region or an area of land that is dominated by similar broad landscape patterns that reflect major structural geologies and climate, as well as major floristic and faunal assemblages
Benthic: refers to material, especially sediment, at the bottom of an aquatic ecosystem; it can be used to describe the organisms that live on, or in, the bottom of a water body
Capillary zone: pores are filled with capillary water so that the saturation approaches 100%; however, the water is held in place by capillary forces
Catchment: the total area draining into a river, reservoir, or other body of water
Catchment constriction: a narrowing in the width and/or a decrease in the depth of the catchment resulting in the formation of a catchment throat which acts as a 'bottle-neck'
Cave(s): a natural cavity in rock large enough to be entered by a person. It may contain water
Channel(s): linear, generally sinuous open depression, comprising of a bed and banks which is in parts eroded, excavated, or built up by channelled stream flow
Classification: the act or the result of classifying or assigning plants and animals to groups within a system of categories distinguished by structure, origin, etc. The usual series of categories is kingdom, phylum (in zoology) or division (in botany), class, order, family, genus, species, and variety
Commonwealth land: Commonwealth land includes land owned or leased by the Commonwealth or a Commonwealth agency.
Confidence: the level of confidence in the prediction that the ecosystem is using groundwater as opposed to other water sources such as soil water or surface water
Confined aquifer: aquifer that is overlain by a confining layer
Decision rule: a combination of conditions that describe where ecosystems are or are likely to be dependent on groundwater at a specific site or local area according to expert knowledge
Dependency: where the biodiversity and/or ecological processes are determined by the quality, quantity and/or timing of groundwater supplies
Derived high confidence: according to expert knowledge, there is a high confidence in the mapping rule-set and a high confidence in the prediction that the mapped ecosystem has some degree of groundwater dependence
Derived low confidence: according to expert knowledge, there is a low confidence in the mapping rule-set and a low confidence in the prediction that the mapped ecosystem has some degree of groundwater dependence
Derived moderate confidence: according to expert knowledge, there is a moderate confidence in the mapping rule-set and a moderate confidence in the prediction that the mapped ecosystem has some degree of groundwater dependence
Discharge: the removal of water from the saturated zone across the water table surface
Disturbance: has been defined as '...any relatively discrete event in time that disrupts ecosystem, community, or population structure and changes resources, substrate availability or the physical environment' However, to permit realistic comparisons to be made between studies, Lake (2000) promotes the definition of disturbance in purely physical terms, incorporating properties such as intensity, seasonality, extent, frequency and type. Under this definition 'perturbation” is used to describe the combination of cause and effect, 'disturbance” is the cause, and the effect is termed the 'response”
Drainage basin: subsurface volume through which groundwater flows toward a specific discharge zone
Ecology: see Wetland ecology page
Ecological character: ecological character is the combination of the ecosystem components, processes and benefits/services that characterise the wetland at a given point in time (where, within this context, ecosystem benefits are defined in accordance with the MEA definition of ecosystem services as the “benefits that people receive from ecosystems”).
Ecosystem: a dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their nonliving environment interacting as a functioning unit
Ecosystem components: see Components, processes and drivers page
Ecosystem drivers: see Components, processes and drivers page
Environment: as defined in the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999
Environmental processes: Components, processes and drivers page
Ecosystem: means a dynamic complex of organisms and their non-living environment, interacting as a functional unit.
Ecosystem services: see Wetland values and services page
Electrical conductivity: the ability of water or soil solution to conduct an electric current
Epipelic: living on/in fine sediments, namely mud or sand
Ephemeral: lasting only a short time; short lived; transitory
Estuarine groundwater dependent ecosystem See GDE FAQ page
Euphotic: the near-surface part of a water body where photosynthesis is possible
Evaporation: the total loss of moisture as water vapour from all sources, including open water, plant surfaces, and from soil surfaces, and excluding transpiration
Evapotranspiration: the movement of water from the landscape to the atmosphere, calculated as the sum of evaporation and transpiration
Existence value: the origin of existence value can be traced to John Krutilla who in 1967 proposed that economists should not just assign values to goods and services that are directly consumed, but should also attribute a value to the knowledge that a particular wilderness, endangered species or other object in nature exists.
The existence value is the value that individuals may attach to just knowing of the existence of something, as opposed to having direct use of that thing.For example, knowledge of the existence of wetlands may have value to environmentalists who do not actually see them.
Existence benefit: the benefit provided by an environmental entity the existence of which is considered desirable to be maintained although it has no prospect of being of use to humans now or in the future.
Freehold: Freehold land is held outright by a private owner. Ownership by the titleholder is not absolute because the state is empowered to withhold certain rights, such as the right to any minerals or petroleum
Gaining channel(s): a stream that receives groundwater discharge
GIS: a computer system that can capture, store, analyse, and present in various ways data that locates places on the earth's surface
Geomorphology: the branch of geology dealing with the characteristics, origin, and development of landforms
Gleyed soil: A soil having one or more neutral gray horizons as a result of waterlogging and lack of oxygen. The term "gleyed" also designates gray horizons and horizons having yellow and gray mottles as a result of intermittent waterlogging.
Groundwater: water that is present in the pores and cracks of the saturated or capillary zone and water that has been present in caves
Groundwater dependent ecosystem (GDE):See GDE ecology page
Groundwater flow system (GFS): the pattern of groundwater flow within a catchment
Herbaceous: referring to a herb, which is a plant that usually has soft leaves and stems that are not secondarily thickened and lignified, and which dies annually
Hydraulic conductivity: generally, the rate at which a material allows water to move through it. The larger the hydraulic conductivity, the smaller the resistance to water movement and the greater the ease with which water flows in response to pressure gradients
Hyporheic zone: the zone of mixing between surface and groundwater below the bed of a stream
Infiltration: entry into the soil of water made available at the ground surface, together with the associated flow away from the ground surface within the unsaturated zone
Intermediate groundwater flow system: are intermediate in extent between local and regional systems, generally occurring within individual catchments but also sometimes flow between smaller sub-catchments. They tend to occur in valleys typically over a horizontal extent of 5 to 10 kilometres
Intermittent: recurrent; showing water only part of the time
Interoperability: able to connect with each other for the exchange of data, programs, etc
Inventory: see Inventory page
Invertebrates: are animals with no backbone including groups such as such as insects, arachnids, crustaceans, annelids, cnidarians, echinoderms, molluscs, nematodes, platyhelminthes, porifera and rotifers, as well as many other lesser-known groups of animals.
Isotope: any of two or more forms of a chemical element, having the same number of protons in the nucleus and, hence, the same atomic number, but having different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus and, hence, different atomic weights
Karst: a terrain with distinctive landforms and drainage arising from greater rock solubility in natural water that is found elsewhere
Known GDE: groundwater dependent ecosystems accurately identified according to expert knowledge and supporting evidence
Lacustrine groundwater dependent ecosystem See GDE FAQ page
Land zone: a simplified geology/substrate-landform classification
Landform: any of the numerous features which make up the surface of the earth leakage. Outflow from an aquifer into adjacent beds
Landscape ecology: see Landscape page
Lentic: of or relating to standing water such as ponds, lakes and reservoirs, etc. as opposed to moving water such as rivers and streams
Littoral: of or pertaining to the shore
Local government areas: Local government is a form of government in which responsibility for the regulation of certain matters within particular local government areas is delegated by statute to locally elected councillors. The Queensland Consolidated Acts, Local Government Act 1993 – Sect 35 defines a local government as a body corporate with perpetual succession which has a common seal and may sue and be sued in its name.
The Queensland Consolidated Acts, Local Government Act 1993 – Sect 15 defines a local government area as the fundamental geographical basis of Queensland's local government system.
A local government area (LGA) included in the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) structure is a spatial unit which represents the whole geographical area of responsibility of an incorporated local government council or an Aboriginal or Island council in Queensland (Australian Bureau of Statistics). For more information see Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC)
Local groundwater flow system: local groundwater flow systems have recharge and discharge areas within a few kilometres of one another. They tend to occur within individual sub-catchments, in areas of higher relief such as foothills to ranges
Losing channel(s): where the bottom of the stream channel is higher than the local water table and water drains from the stream into the ground
Lotic: of or relating to an aquatic environment where there is moving water such as rivers and streams (compare with lentic)
Map(s): graphic representations that facilitate a spatial understanding of things, concepts, conditions, processes or events in the human world
Mapping rule set: a combination of related decision rules with similar groundwater dependent ecosystem drivers and processes that when applied to spatial data sets through Geographical Information System (GIS) analysis delineate where ecosystems are or are likely to be dependent on groundwater
Mapping rule set part: a component of a mapping rule set that describes a specific portion of the total groundwater dependent ecosystems identified in the mapping rule set
Marine groundwater dependent ecosystem See GDE FAQ page
Marine system: see System definitions page
Meteoric: of the atmosphere; meteorological
Monitoring: see Monitoring page
Mound spring: see Sedimentary rocks (Great Artesian Basin)
NRM regions: Regional natural resource management (NRM) bodies are responsible for protecting and managing Australia's natural resources in specific NRM regions. To do this, regional NRM plans were developed which outline how a regional body will identify and achieve the region's NRM targets.
There are 56 bodies in Australia of which 14 are based in Queensland. For information on other regional bodies around Australia, visit the Australian Government NRM website.
NRM regions are the regions that a Regional NRM body would look after. For example Terrain is the name of the Regional NRM body for Far North Queensland Region.
Palaeochannel: an ancient stream or riverbed, cut into the rock or soil and overlaid by sediment after the stream has changed its course or dried up
Palustrine groundwater dependent ecosystem See GDE FAQ page
Para-karst: terrain that consists of a mixture of karstic and fluvial due to the mix of karst and nonkarst rocks in an outcrop
Perched aquifer: a saturated lense that is bounded by a perched water table
Perennial: lasting for an indefinitely long time; enduring. Lasting or continuing throughout the year, as a stream
Permanent: lasting or intended to last indefinitely; remaining unchanged. Providing water throughout all seasons
Permeability: the ability of a rock to transmit water
pH: value that represents the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration of the solution
Phreatic zone: see 'Zone of saturation'
Pictorial conceptual model: pictorial conceptual models are representations of observed objects, phenomena and processes in a logical and objective way with the aim of constructing a formal system whose theoretical consequences are not contrary to what is observed in the real world
Porosity: percentage of the rock and soil that is void of material
Propagules: any part of an organism that is liberated from the adult form and which can give rise to a new individual, such as a fertilised egg or spore
Pseudokarst: distinct landform with features similar to karst forms, however these landforms evolve in response to dominant processes other than rock dissolution
Recharge: the entry into the saturated zone of water made available at the water table surface, together with the associated flow away from the water table within the saturated zone
Region: group of catchments with similar landscape processes controlling the interaction between groundwater and ecosystems
Regional ecosystem (RE): vegetation communities in a bioregion that are consistently associated with a particular combination of geology, landform and soil
Regional groundwater flow system: regional groundwater flow systems are characterised by laterally extensive aquifers, which may be thicker than 300 metres, and recharge and discharge areas separated by distances of fifty or more kilometres. They occur in areas of low relief such as alluvial plains. The aquifers in regional systems are usually wholly or partly confined, and can be overlain by local and intermediate flow systems. The time for groundwater discharge to occur following post-clearing increases in groundwater recharge may be as great as one hundred years
Remote sensing: the identification of data, usually about features of the earth or other bodies in space, from a satellite, aeroplane etc
Require access: ecosystems may require either facultative access to groundwater(opportunistic use of groundwater to satisfy at least some proportion of their environmental water requirements) or obligate access (require groundwater to survive)
Riverine groundwater dependent ecosystem See GDE FAQ page
Run-off: total flow in a stream
Salinity: the presence of soluble salts in or on soils or in water
Saturated zone: see 'Zone of saturation'
Sclerophyllous: leaves which are hard and thickened, characteristic of many Australian native plants, in particular Eucalyptus species
Seasonal: relating to or dependent on the seasons of the year or some particular season; periodical
Shorebird: See birds.
Seep: subset of springs, see 'Spring'
Soak: subset of springs, see 'Spring'
Soil water: water in the vadose zone that is available to growing plants
Spring: See GDE FAQ page
State land: State land is under the control of the State of Queensland, but may be subject to a lease, permit or licence, reserved for a community purpose, dedicated as a road, or subject to no tenure at all
Stygofauna: groundwater fauna
Subterranean: existing, situated, or operating below the surface of the earth; underground
Subterranean GDE: is a shorthand term used in the GDE mapping to refer to aquifer and cave ecosystems occurring below the surface of the ground which requires access to groundwater on a permanent or intermittent basis to meet all or some of their water requirements so as to maintain their communities of plants and animals, ecological processes and ecosystem services
Surface expression GDE: is a shorthand term used in the GDE mapping to refer to an ecosystem occurring on the surface of the ground which requires access to groundwater discharge on a permanent or intermittent basis to meet all or some of their water requirements so as to maintain their communities of plants and animals, ecological processes and ecosystem services
Surficial: occurring on or near the Earth's surface
Terrestrial groundwater dependent ecosystems(GDEs): is a shorthand term used in the GDE mapping to refer to an ecosystem which requires access to groundwater present below the surface on a permanent or intermittent basis to meet all or some of their water requirements so as to maintain their communities of plants and animals, ecological processes and ecosystem services
Total dissolved solids (TDS): a measure of the inorganic salts (and organic compounds) dissolved in water
Transpiration: the process of water loss from leaves to the atmosphere
Troglofauna: see aquifers and caves page
Unknown confidence: according to expert knowledge, the confidence in the mapping rule-set and in the prediction that the mapped ecosystem has some degree of groundwater dependence is yet to be determined
Unsaturated zone: see 'Vadose Zone'
Vadose zone: region below the land surface where the soil pores contain both air and water
Values: see Values and services page
Vent: see 'Spring'
Wader: See birds.
Water quality : the chemical characteristics of water in terms of suitability of the water for various intended uses
Water table: the level of groundwater; the upper surface of the zone of saturation for underground water
Waterbird: See birds.
Weathered: worn, disintegrated, or changed in colour or composition, by the action of the elements
Wetland: see Wetland definition page
Wetland bird: See birds.Wetland systems: Wetland system definitions can be found on the Wetland systems definitions page
Wise Use: the wise use of wetlands is the maintenance of their ecological character, achieved through the implementation of ecosystem approaches, within the context of sustainable development (where the phrase “in the context of sustainable development” is intended to recognise that while some wetland development is inevitable and that many developments have important benefits to society, developments can be facilitated in sustainable ways by approaches elaborated under the Ramsar Convention, and it is not appropriate to imply that ‘development’ is an objective for every wetland).
Zone of saturation: the pores of soil or rock are saturated with water
Last updated: 12 May 2015
This page should be cited as:
Glossary of technical terms, WetlandInfo, Department of Environment and Heritage Protection, Queensland, viewed 7 April 2016, .